What is powertrain? There are many parts that contribute to a vehicle’s ability to get from place to place. The powertrain is a system made of several components that work to get energy transferred from the engine to the wheels to make a car to move.
A quality powertrain is essential to help a vehicle reach proper acceleration. Keep reading to learn more about how the system works and the different roles each part in the system plays.
What is powertrain?
A powertrain is a system inside a vehicle, boat or another type of machinery. The system is designed to propel the vehicle forward. In a car, a powertrain consists of the engine or motor and its internal components, such as the energy storage system, transmission and driveshaft.
In a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE), the powertrain converts the stored gasoline or diesel energy to kinetic energy in the engine and transfers it via the transmission, driveshaft and differential as torque to the wheels of the vehicle, propelling it forward.
The vast majority of powertrain systems in production today are based on ICEs. These can either be spark ignition (SI) in the case of gasoline or compression ignition (CI) for diesel. Electrification of road vehicles has significantly increased the production of both hybrid engines, which use a mix of ICE and electrified powertrains, and fully electrified systems.
The energy for electrified systems can come from a range of sources, including onboard generation, plug-in charging or even hydrogen fuel cells.
How does a powertrain work?
The powertrain encompasses many parts that work together to push a vehicle forward by creating power from the engine, which is then sent to the wheels. The term drivetrain is sometimes used interchangeably with powertrain; however, the drivetrain is just a way to describe all parts of the powertrain that are not related to the engine.
Let’s break down each one by one:
- Engine: As the heart of your vehicle, an engine generates power to drive the car. An engine consists of pistons that move up and down inside cylinders and a crankshaft that translates the reciprocating motion into a rotating motion.
- Transmission: A transmission is a basic component in your car that makes sure the proper amount of power is transmitted to the wheels. Like a car’s gearbox, the transmission takes the power from the engine and adjusts it according to driving conditions, ultimately transferring it to the wheels.
- Driveshaft: A driveshaft is a component that transfers the torque from the transmission to the wheels. To perform this task, it has to work through various angles and change its length to adjust to movement in the suspension.
- Axles: Axles are an important member of a powertrain. It lies between the wheels and mainly performs two functions: first, it puts up with the weight of the vehicle and it also rotates and transmits the power of the engine to the wheels.
- Differential: A differential is a part of the rear axle. It allows each rear wheel to turn at a different speed. For instance, the differential is important when turning a corner, as the outside wheel needs to rotate faster than the inside wheel.
The powertrain is crucial because without the system working properly, your vehicle cannot move forward. To sum up, it’s a group of parts that generate, convert, and consume energy to thrust your vehicle into motion.
Why is a powertrain important?
When people talk about a high-performance sports sedan, we often hear how the vehicle is capable of smooth steering, acceleration, and brakes, as well as excellent body control and enhanced safe driving. Well, these techniques are important but not the ‘be-all-and-end-all’ of a successful sports car.
Its staggering performance numbers such as hundreds of horsepower or reaching 0-100km/h in seconds come from your powertrain, and nowhere else. As a source of power generation, a good quality powertrain is a key to a better operating range, acceleration, and top speed.
So, next time you accelerate your car from a standstill and feel a push of your engine power, just know that your powertrain propelled your vehicle.
These days, the importance of the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) has been recognized for its role in improving fuel economy and responding to global environmental regulations by controlling exhaust emissions. The PCM is the electronic control system that controls what your engine and transmission do.
Thus, it is like the main computer of your car that controls fuel delivery, emissions functions, and many others. It also affects your engine’s performance and drivability significantly.
Powertrain & Drivetrain
You might not know off the top of your head what the advantages are of comparing a drivetrain vs. powertrain however when you recognize the differences between the two, it will provide you the advantage when vehicle purchasing, checking out the technician, or when Alex Trebek asks you a Jeopardy question about vehicle components that make cars move.
Basically, powertrains and drivetrains essentially do the exact same thing. They produce kinetic energy to make your vehicle ‘go’. Now, chances are that you have never really thought about how vital these moving components are. They’re the unsung heroes that get you from point A to point B and they each operate in their very own one-of-a-kind method.
What are the drivetrain parts?
Many times the terms ‘drivetrain’ and ‘powertrain’ are used interchangeably however, contrary to popular belief, they are not the exact same. So exactly what is the difference between powertrain elements and drivetrain components? The greatest distinction is the way power is created and distributed to the car.
A drivetrain is not really a single part of your car – it’s a group of drivetrain parts that interact with the engine to move the wheels and various parts of the vehicle to thrust it into motion. These parts often include the transmission, differential, driveshaft, axles, CV joints, and the wheels.
Types of drivetrains
The drivetrain is the part of the powertrain system that encompasses the drive shaft, transmission, differentials and axles.
There are four drivetrain setups that are found on most vehicles: front-wheel drive (FWD), rear-wheel drive (RWD), all-wheel drive (AWD) and four-wheel drive (4WD).
In a front-wheel-drive vehicle, the engine runs horizontally and not vertically, which is known as transverse engine placement. This is where all the drivetrain components are located.
This setup allows power delivery to be sent to the front wheels, since the motor’s weight is directly over them. This helps improve vehicle acceleration and traction control. A benefit of FWD is increased fuel efficiency.
With a rear-wheel-drive setup, engine power is sent from the transmission to the rear differential and then to the back two wheels of the vehicle. A standard RWD layout features an engine that’s longitudinally mounted at the front, with a driveshaft that goes through a tunnel built into the body of the vehicle.
RWD vehicles offer some of their own benefits, including less weight in the front of the vehicle and more precise handling, since the front wheels are not at risk of losing traction. This type of drivetrain is more commonly found in sports cars and luxury vehicles.
There are a few ways that an all-wheel drivetrain can be set up. One layout utilizes power being sent through the transmission into a center differential. The other layout is similar to a front-wheel-drive setup, with the engine connecting to the transmission in the same housing as the front differential and axles.
AWD vehicles offer increased traction since the power is going to all of the wheels, making it a great choice for very light off-road driving. However, they are the most versatile of the drivetrains and perform well on standard roads as well. They can operate without driver input, taking the decision for how to handle the road out of the driver’s hands, depending on the needs.
FWD vehicles are similar to AWD; however, they don’t send power to the center of the vehicle before it is sent to the front and rear axles. A four-wheel drive system is typically more durable and robust, since it’s a system specifically designed with off-road driving in mind.
FWD and AWD drivetrains are great for providing traction and safety on poor road conditions. However, their handling on normal roads is not ideal compared with other drivetrain options.
Signs your powertrain might be wearing out
It’s important to keep the parts of a powertrain in good condition. If there is wear and tear building up on them, you might experience different symptoms. These can include:
- Shaking or grinding: The transmission could be having issues if it’s making loud noises or slipping and shaking as you drive.
- Burning smells: Any type of burning smells coming from your vehicle should be investigated! They could be coming from overheated fluid in the transmission.
- Gears slipping: The car slipping out of gear is a serious issue and safety concern. This could mean there is a problem with the powertrain control module (PCM) or electronic control module (ECM), which are two important computer systems in many vehicles that help control the engine and transmission.
- Leaking fluid: If you notice red fluid pooling underneath your vehicle, there might be a leak in a gasket or hose somewhere in the powertrain.
And of course, if the check engine warning light comes on, this is an obvious sign to take your car to a trained technician who can help diagnose the problem.
What is a powertrain warranty?
A powertrain warranty is a warranty that covers the powertrain parts in case they are impaired for a set period. So, while you are covered, the automaker will pay to have your damaged parts replaced or fixed.
A powertrain warranty is typically different from a base car warranty in what they cover and don’t cover. The powertrain covers the cost of fixing or replacing components of the powertrain. While the base can protect a much broader range of parts of your car, and the powertrain warranty usually comes in after the base coverage.
For example, a base warranty covers CV boots. On the other hand, a powertrain warranty covers CV joints which are an actual mechanical component but may not cover the CV boot which is a flexible rubber part that protects the CV joints.
Thus, a powertrain warranty can be seen as coverage that covers more important and expensive mechanical components inside your engine, transmission, and differential.
What is a faulty powertrain?
Symptoms of a malfunctioning powertrain can include overheating, unusual handling, shaking/vibrating, whining and growling noises. The louder your vehicle is, the more concerned you should be. Additionally a powertrain warranty covers the cost to repair/replace these components when they malfunction or fail.
What can go wrong with powertrain?
All the powertrain components are interconnected and can’t function without each other. Many things can go wrong with the powertrain components including oil leaks, strange noises, and problems with the clutch. It’s costly for car owners to repair or replace any part of it.
Can you fix a powertrain?
If your vehicle is experiencing powertrain transmission issues such as making strange noises or emitting burning odors, then you may need a powertrain repair which can be done at a professional auto shop or transmission shops.
Above is information about What is powertrain? that we have compiled. Hopefully, through the above content, you have a more detailed understanding of How does a powertrain work? Thank you for reading our post.